The number of women employed decreased from 13.10% to 5.07 million in Bangladesh last year compared to 2013, mainly due to the closure of outsourcing companies in the garment sector, according to a new survey.
The Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) study showed that there were 5.51 million women in 2013.
Four years ago, 32.8% of women were employed, but their number dropped to 28.5% in 2016, according to the survey, which was presented yesterday at BIDS Research Almanac 2017 at the Lakeshore Hotel in Dhaka.
One of the main factors explaining the downward trend in women's employment was the closure of outsourcing in the garment sector after the collapse of the Rana Plaza building in April 2013, said Md Iqbal Hossain, BIDS Research Associate.
Other reasons are the withdrawal of temporary jobs, especially in urban areas, with the increase in family income. For example, a female worker who wants to work at a lower level in a factory leaves her job when family income rises, according to Hossain.
Another reason is the withdrawal of female workers from part-time jobs for various reasons, including moving factories or starting their own businesses, he said.
However, the number of women workers will increase in the near future, especially in some specialized sectors such as clothing, leather and leather goods, ICT, pharmaceuticals and toys as these industries are expanding, said Hossain. ]
"The government should set up training centers in line with the UCEP model so that a sufficient number of skilled workers can be provided to the growing industrial sectors."
UCEP training is sectoral and can be applied directly to jobs, to the benefit of employees and employers, Hossain said after presenting his work on "The Labor Supply and its Changes from 2006 to 2016: focus on gender and regional difference ". Citing data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Hossain said the employment of female workers in the agricultural sector increased from 53.5 percent in 2013 to 63.1 percent in 2016.
The employment of women workers in the industrial sector increased from 23.7% in 2013 to 16.1% in 2016, compared to 14.9% in 2013 against 22.5% in 2013 in the manufacturing sector.
Division-wise, the largest increase in the participation of female labor force was noticed in Khulna Division.
In 2016, women's participation in employment in Khulna was 42.2% compared to 26.9% previously.
In Rajshahi, the turnout was 49.8% last year compared to 34.1% previously, while in Barisal the turnout dropped to 29.8% from 30, 9% in 2013.
Similarly, in Chittagong, the participation rate increased from 36.4% to 34% over the period. Women's participation in employment in Sylhet has been steadily decreasing since 2006.
In another article titled "Transition Between Informal and Formal Employment", researcher Minhaj Mahmud said that 30% of people leaving private employment were going into self-employment.
Transitions from private employment to casual work are more common among those with lower levels of education, while transitions to employment are more common among older workers and among older workers. those who retain the same benefits.
Speaking as a discussant, Simeen Mahmud, who teaches at the University of Brac, said that sexual harassment in the workplace is so common that it has become a major impediment to women's participation in l & # 39; employment.
Rizwanul Islam, former special advisor for the employment sector at the International Labor Organization, moderated the session.